Privatization means establishing a new system based on the market mechanisms and consequently making a change, alteration in different aspects of economy and is a process in which the government can examine the possibility of transferring the duties and facilities to the private sector on any level and if necessary, exerts such transfer. On the other hand, exports in industry sector can be a noticeable point for the economic growth of any country. Enhancing the exports of the steel industry of the country can have a principal role in the economic pursuit of the country’s non-oil products. Such an enhancement brings about a positive effect in the efficiency of the stocks within the financial markets by developing the steel industry. Researchers of this field claim that privatization in the steel industry results in the further development of the steel stock market and exports. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on factors influencing on privatization of the firms in steel industry. The study has designed a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributed it among some experts who worked for Mobarakeh steel producer in Iran. Using principle component analysis, the survey has concluded that export activities were influenced the most by six major factors including creativity, technological limitation, opportunities and challenges, being up to date, customer orientation and financial sanction. Moreover, firm performance was influenced by two major factors of stakeholder’s satisfaction and organizational culture. Finally, two factors of rationalism and market orientation influenced the most on privatization.
This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine whether or there is any difference between the returns of two value and growth portfolios, sorted by price-to-earnings (P/E) and price-to-book value (P/BV), in terms of the ratios of market sensitivity to index (β), firm size and market liquidity in listed firms in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) over the period 2001-2008. The selected firms were collected from those with existing two-consecutive positive P/E and P/BV ratios and by excluding financial and holding firms. There were five independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including P/E, P/B, market size, market sensitivity beta (β) and market liquidity. In each year, we first sort firms in non-decreasing order and setup four set of portfolios with equal firms. Therefore, the first portfolio with the lowest P/E ratio is called value portfolio and the last one with the highest P/E ratio is called growth portfolio. This process was repeated based on P/BV ratio to determine value and growth portfolios, accordingly. The study investigated the characteristics of two portfolios based on firm size, β and liquidity. The study has implemented t-student and Levin’s test to examine different hypotheses and the results have indicated mix effects of market sensitivity, firm size and market liquidity on returns of the firms in various periods.
There is a concern that auditors and the public may have different beliefs about the auditors’ responsibilities and the messages delivered by audit reports. During the past few years, some spectacular and well‐publicized corporates such as Anderson consulting collapse and the subsequent implication of the reporting auditors have emphasized on the audit expectation gap. It appears that public misperceptions represent a major reason for the legal liability crisis facing the accounting profession. The objective of this paper is to present an empirical investigation on the audit expectation gap for some privately hold firms in Iran. The population of this survey includes two groups of official auditing officials and management of some privately held firms. The results of the survey have indicated that there were some meaningful difference between management and audit group’s perceptions in terms of the auditors’ roles and responsibilities. However, there was no meaningful relationship between management and audit group’s perceptions in terms of the auditors’ independence.
Cash is the life blood of the organizations and cash management is the important aspect of any organization. Corporate cash management boosts the companies from small to giant in the competitive environment. In this study, we highlighted three factors of a good cash management practices; namely cash conversion cycle, cash holding and credit score. Influence of one factor to other help organizations manage their corporate cash more appropriately. In this study, we collected data from Capitaline corporate data base of Mumbai over the period 2002-2011. In this study we observed that due to higher credit score, companies were forced to minimize their cash conversion cycle and helped them maintain lower levels of working capital.
Consumer credit risk assessment involves the implementation of risk assessment techniques to manage a borrower’s account from the event of pre-screening a potential application through to the management of the account during its life-cycle and possible write-off. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between 13 different factors such as credit history, applications’ educational and management skills, etc. and credit risk. The study selects the profiles of 380 applicants who received loans from one of Iranian banks named Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran over the period 2010-2011. Using Pearson correlation, the study has determined a meaningful relationship between applicants’ profiles including credit history, business characteristics, personal characteristics, etc. and credit risk.
Capital structure is a controversial issue in the field of corporate finance. There are several studies to find a way to determine the optimal capital structure to minimize the cost of capital and maximize the corporate value. In fact, capital structure is a combination of firms’ liabilities and capital to meet long term assets. This paper investigates the role of the hierarchical theory in explaining the capital structure of the firms based on enterprise life cycle model on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) using three methods of net equities, net liabilities and retained earnings. The study uses Park and Chen’s (2006) method [Park, Y., & Chen, K. H. (2006). The effect of accounting conservatism and life-cycle stages on firm valuation. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 22(3), 75-92.] to categorize the life cycle of 81 randomly selected firms from TSE over the period 2007-2012. The results indicate that the hierarchical theory represents the growing firms better than the matured firms do. The results also show that firms were more willing to reduce their dividend per share for financing their projects.
Today Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) still remains as an attempt alone. For more than a decade, supply chain evolution to be a low carbon chain in an energy and resource constrained world has been posing greater challenges. Though environmental policies remain without much variation towards green operations in an industry, the implantation strategies and stages vary. There have been a number of studies by researchers and a lot of endeavors by organizations to build a green supply chain, mainly because of pressure from the professional bodies like EPA, WEEE, OECD, and Clean Air Act to reduce emissions with growing concerns over climate change issues, global warming, and requirements from policy makers, end users, stake holders and others. But, at the implementation level there lacked a proper framework on GSCM which suggests guidelines for proper planning and coordination, and the practices to be adopted. This indicates the need for a complete strategic approach on the part of decision makers across the supply chain to have sustainability as a corporate social responsibility. The research gap exists in a holistic perception with regard to a product when supply chain stages are mapped for sustainability due to diverse environmental issues. Also, to build a holistic approach, we must know how the stages and levels interact. Thus, in this work, a Parametric Matrix demarking various level and stages of a supply chain related to a product, in general, is developed from various literatures till date. Such a metric will be useful for the industries to identify the bottleneck areas in their supply chain towards sustainability. Hence, the desired and relevant level of factors to be considered at each stage to become green can easily be decided.
This paper investigates the effects of different factors influencing on the successful implementation of the business process re-engineering (BPR) in Iran. The study selects 386 experts randomly and using some statistical tests examines the effects of four groups of factors including strategic, organizational, methodologic and technological & educational issues on the success of the BPR implementation in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts where Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.71. The implementation of Pearson correlation ratio has confirmed that technological and educational factors marinated the highest effects (r = 0.523, Sig. = 0.000) followed by strategic (r = 0.505, Sig. = 0.000), organizational (r = 0.352, Sig. = 0.000) and methodologic issues (r = 0.267, Sig. = 0.000). In addition, the implementation of Stepwise regression has confirmed that technological & educational, strategic and methodologic factors influence on BPR in Iran.
Nowadays, traffic safety is one of the primary principles of traffic engineering and transportation planning. Road accidents have been major problems that cause human losses, social and economic challenges. The first step to improve road traffic safety is to identify black spots, which preserve high potential of road accidents. Therefore, identifying, analyzing, prioritizing and refining these places play important role in improving transportation safety. This paper applies fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal (TOPSIS) for ordering different black spots for a case study of highway between two cities of Qazvin and Saveh, Iran. The study performs the ranking based on two categories of tangent distance and horizontal curve. The ranking is performed according to Roadway width, Shoulder width, Traffic volume, Percentage of vehicle, Load and utility, Network access, The number of horizontal curves and Equivalent Property Damage Only (EPDO). The results are compared with frequencies of incidents and analyzed.
This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different strategies including attribute, advantage, application, consumer, competitive advantage, pricing/quality and category on brand promise for products of LG Company in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs two questionnaires, one for strategic positioning and the other for brand promise in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for brand promise and strategic positioning are 0.81 and 0.79, respectively. The questionnaires are distributed among 385 randomly selected regular users of LG products and using Spearman correlation as well as Stepwise regression techniques, the effects of various strategies on brand promise are examined. The results of the implementation of Spearman correlation have indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between different strategies and brand promise. In addition, the results of Stepwise regression have indicated that three strategies of price/quality, consumer and application were the most important predictors of brand promise.