Double-sided trimming shear machine is used for longitudinal both–sided trimming of steel plates and simultaneous scraping of trimmed edges at specific length. Side trimming shear (STS) executes the most vital role in increasing the productivity of plate mill and due to its feature, efficiency of plate mill division is enormously increases. In general, frequency of the occurrence of breakdown in STS machine is a most challenging task when STS performs side trimming and scrap cutting machining process. Bhilai Steel Plant (Steel Authority of India at Bhilai) in India is continuously facing a problem due to breakdown of STS machine. The use of separate knife for side trimming and scrap cutting reduces the possibility of scrap jamming which is a major reason for breakdown of STS machine. Researchers and practitioners also suggest the use of arc guillotine shear for side trimming and straight guillotine shear for scrap cutting for minimizing the breakdown in STS machine. The aim of this study is to describe the problems faced by the steel industry as well as the necessary steps which should be taken for improvement of the productivity of STS machine and also it has made contribution to Bhilai Steel Plant by its growth and prosperity. The methodology of study is purely qualitative and the results point out the problems, its implications, steps taken to improve the overall productivity of Bhilai steel plant.
The article is devoted to some aspects of research of hostile environment influence on the concrete durability. The mechanism of formation of chaotically diversified difficult structure is described. Chemical interactions of cement with active components of diffusion in steam space are examined. Measures for receiving conditions under which the volume of products of reaction will be equal to the volume of the reacted alkaline components of a cement stone are offered. High-quality and quantitative changes in a pore space, which are irrespective of density and the relative molecular mass of reaction products are described. Besides, movement and distribution of gaseous products of reaction in volumes of a cement stone are simulated. Reasonable integrated dependences of influence of aggressive environment on various types of concrete surfaces are given. The methods of corrosion control offered in article allow substantially to lower or absolutely to exclude adverse effect of hostile environment on concrete and reinforced concrete structures already at a stage of selection of composition of concrete mix. In this case service life of concrete and reinforced concrete structures will increase.
This paper is concerned with the vibration and stability analysis of thick rectangular plates resting on elastic foundation, which is distributed over the particular area of the plate. A two-parameter (Pasternak) model is considered to describe the elastic foundation. The eigenvalue problem in 3-D domain is numerically solved by a combination of the finite element and differential quadrature method (DQM). The energy principle is employed to derive the governing equations in the framework of three-dimensional, linear and small strain theory of elasticity. The in-plane domain of the problem is discretized using two-dimensional finite elements and spatial derivatives of equations in the thickness direction are discretized in strong-form using DQM. As a first endeavor, the mixed FE-DQ method has been employed for 3-D buckling and free vibration analysis of rectangular thick plates partially supported by an elastic foundation. The accuracy of obtained results is validated by comparing to the few analytical solutions in the literature.
This article deals with the thermoelastic interaction in a three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic viscoelastic medium under the Dual-phase-lag model of generalized thermoelasticity. The resulting non-dimensional coupled equations are applied to a specific problem of a half-space whose surface is traction-free and is subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The analytical expressions for the displacement components, stress, temperature and strain are obtained in the physical domain by employing normal mode analysis. These expressions are also calculated for a copper-like material and have been depicted graphically. Discussions have been made to highlight the effect of viscosity on the studied field. The phenomenon of a finite speed of propagation is observed for each field. Also, if the effect of viscosity is neglected, the results agree with the existing literature.
When a structure is influenced by the earthquake external force, some energy imposed to the structure is dissipated and remained energy causes structure displacements. Dissipated energy in the structure depends on the type of structure and its optimal engineering design. In any typical structure, the type of connections, stiffness of structure, dampers, place of windfall and damper and other factors play significant role in the amount of dissipated energy. This article introduces a new resilience factor which is a function of energy dissipation factors of input seismic energy. Mathematical equations are presented for this factor and its limits are determined for different periods. The applicability of the proposed factor is also investigated for two typical structural examples.
In this paper, a method for severity fault diagnosis of ball bearings is presented. The method is based on wavelet packet transform (WPT), statistical parameters, principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). The key to bearing faults diagnosis is features extraction. Hence, the proposed technique consists of preprocessing the bearing fault vibration signal using statistical parameters and energy obtained through the application of Db8- WPT at the third level of decomposition. After feature extraction from vibration signal, PCA is employed for dimensionality reduction. Finally, particle swarm optimization with passive congregation-based support vector machine is used to classify seven kinds of bearing faults. The classification results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method for severity faults diagnosis in ball bearings.
Machining of hardened work materials with appropriate levels of process parameters is still a burning issue in manufacturing sectors and challenging. It is because of pressing demand of surface quality which adversely affected by evolution of tool wear. Therefore the present investigation is undertaken to make a decision on parametric optimization of multi-responses such as flank wear and surface roughness during machining hardened AISI 52100 steel (55±1) steel using mixed ceramic insert under dry environment through grey relational analysis combined with Taguchi approach. Also predicted mathematical models of 1st and 2nd order have been developed for responses and checked for its accuracy. Second order mathematical model presented higher R2 value and represents best fit of the model and adequate compared to first order model. Model indicates good correlations between the experimental and predicted results. The proposed grey-based Taguchi methodology has been proved to be efficient for solving multi-attribute decision making problem as a case study in hard machining environment.
Agricultural tractor selection is vital for farms, farmers or other agricultural companies in terms of success and competitiveness in the global market. This selection may be assumed as a MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) problem involving qualitative and quantitative factors that must be simultaneously integrated into the selection process. At the same time there are many agricultural tractor alternatives in the market when purchasing an agricultural tractor. This paper deals with the agricultural tractor selection problem using TOPSIS method. This problem is also solved with two other MCDM methods; COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment) and EVAMIX (EVAluation of MIXed Data) to rank the tractors alternatives. Lastly Borda and Copeland methods are used to aggregate all three ranking results.
In this study an integrated model is proposed for the location inventory routing problem under uncertainty. This problem involves determining the location of distribution centers (DCs) in a three echelon supply chain. The DCs receive orders from the customer and according to a continuous review inventory replenishment policy place orders to the supplier. The products are directly shipped from the supplier to the DCs. The vehicles start from the DCs to fulfill the demands of the customers. Determining the routing of the vehicles is one of the decisions involved in this problem. The demands of customers are stochastically distributed and the capacity of DCs are limited. If one of the DCs undergo a disruption and is unable to fulfill the demands of the customers, shortage may occur. Moreover in the proposed model the shortage is considered as partial backlogging. This means that if shortage occurs, some of the orders result in lost sales and other orders are fulfilled in the next period. In order to optimally solve the proposed model a nonlinear integer programming (INLP) model is developed. However, since the problem is NP-hard, the mathematical formulation cannot be efficiently solved for large sized instances of the problem. Therefore an outer approximation method is developed to solve the problem more efficiently. The computational results show the efficiency of the proposed method.
In most industrial environments, it is usually considered that machines are accessible throughout the planning horizon, but in real situation, machines may be unavailable due to a scheduled preventive maintenance where the periods of unavailability are known in advance. The main idea of this paper is to consider different preventive maintenance policies on machines regarding open shop scheduling problem (OSSP) with sequence dependent setup times (SDST) using immune algorithm. The preventive maintenance (PM) policies are planned for maximizing availability of machines or keeping minimum level of reliability through the production horizon. The objective function of the paper is to minimize makespan. In total, the proposed algorithm extensively is compared with six adaptations of existing heuristic and meta-heuristic methods for the problem through data sets from benchmarks based on Taillard’s instances with some adjustments. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms for this problem.